After practicing hybrid corn and soybean in bi-annual rotation under CA, the soil has impressively improved. There is highly biological activity and humification from different organic matter sources such as corn, sorghum, pigeon pea and soybean. Soil biodiversity is greatly enriched both above and below ground.
Pigeon pea is one of the most suitable cover crops to ecologically intensify maize cultivation under CA management. On shallow soils and to avoid possible competition for water, pigeon pea is sown 15 days after maize. After harvesting maize in November, the pigeon pea continues to grow crossing the dry season, suppressing weeds and improving soil structure and fertility. The grain could be harvested for sale or animal feed.